Cross-Contact and Celiac Disease 101
Cross-contact is a very important aspect of a gluten-free lifestyle. Cross-contact and celiac disease are related in a sense that you need to be concerned about your food coming in to cross-contact with gluten if you have celiac disease.
What is cross-contact?
Cross-contact happens when one food comes into contact with other food and their proteins mix. As a result, each food then contains small amounts of other food. These amounts are so small that they usually can’t be seen.– Foodallergy.org
Another resource states:
[It’s the] unintentional transfer of allergenic proteins from a food containing the proteins to one that does not.– Foodservicemonthly.com
When you have celiac disease, it is important to be aware of cross-contact because even though you can’t see the gluten proteins on/in your food, they could still trigger a response.
What is cross-contamination?
People used to and still refer to cross-contact as cross-contamination. However, the term cross-contact was developed to create a more appropriate description for exposure to allergens.
Cross-contamination now typically refers to the biological contamination of foods. Think food-borne illnesses.
Are cross-contact and cross-contamination the same?
Cross-contact and cross-contamination are not the same. Cross-contact refers to the transfer of food proteins to other foods thus potentially exposing people to allergens. Cross-contamination is the transfer of viruses and bacteria between food.
For example, cross-contact and celiac disease might look like this: a food handler prepared a regular sandwich made with normal bread. This food handler doesn’t change their gloves when they go to make your gluten-free sandwich. Now their gloves that have touched gluten are transferring gluten to your gluten-free food (and you might not be able to see it).
Cross-contamination on the other hand would look something like this: a food handler cuts raw chicken on a cutting board and then cuts lettuce on the same cutting board with out washing it. Those who order a salad now will be exposed to the bacteria that was present on the raw chicken and will likely get sick from that exposure.
Why do you say gluten exposure?
If you’ve been following along with me for a while, you might have notice I often refer to gluten consumption of all forms as gluten exposure. For me, cross-contact isn’t the only form of being “glutened” so I refer to gluten exposure to encompass everything (especially since often when we are recovering from gluten exposure, we don’t always know how we were exposed, just that we were exposed).
Cross contact and celiac disease (do I need to worry about it?)
Yes! Some of you might know this but believe it or not, not everyone is aware of this (including doctors). Do you know how many people have told me that their doctors said they only needed to be 80% gluten-free? Or that they didn’t have to worry about certain forms of cross-contact?
If you have celiac disease, you absolutely need to worry about gluten coming into contact with your food. Even if you can’t see it, even if you don’t experience any symptoms, it could still be damaging your small intestine. This goes for all food that barely touched gluten.
I’m not trying to scare you, but just know you need to do your best to avoid cross-contact.
Forms of unsafe cross-contact and celiac disease
Now that we know what cross-contact is, what does cross-contact and celiac disease look like? Here are some examples of cross-contact and celiac disease:
- Someone sticks a knife into the butter tub, peanut butter, jelly, mayo etc. and spreads it on wheat bread and then sticks the knife back in to get more. That spread they put their knife in has now come into cross-contact with gluten and is unsafe.
- Use of colanders that have once drained regular wheat/gluten pasta. It’s suggested that colanders are unable to be cleaned completely and that gluten can linger even after washing.
- Using water that has boiled regular pasta to boil gluten-free pasta.
- Toasting bread in a toaster that has toasted regular/gluten bread.
- Using wooden utensils that have once cooked gluten.
- Preparing anything that’s not gluten-free and then preparing gluten-free foods without washing your hands or changing your gloves.
- Washing your dishes in dishwater that has been used to clean dishes with gluten on them.
- Baking a regular cake and gluten-free cake in the oven together at the same time.
- Someone eating regular/gluten crackers and then reaching into a gluten-free chip bowl with the same hands.
- Someone dipping pita bread into a shared hummus bowl.
The list goes on. Keep your eyes out for cross-contact and learn from your gluten exposures. I know that that list can seem overwhelming. If it was overwhelming for you, feel free to reach out to me, and here’s a post on how to deal with overwhelming food situations that hopefully can help.
If you need help with dealing with cross-contact in your home, download my free Celiac Disease Workbook by signing up for my email list. This ebook will help guide you through setting up your home to be safe.
Comment below an unexpected source of cross-contact you’ve encountered!